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Traditional application and modern pharmacological research of Artemisia annua

Traditional application and modern pharmacological research of Artemisia annua

By SIYAH ORGANICS Mon, Jan 24, 22

Abstract

As a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Artemisia annua L. (A. annua) has been used for the treatment of various diseases since ancient times, including intermittent fevers due to malaria, bone steaming and heat/fever arising from exhaustion, tuberculosis, lice, wounds, scabies, dysentery et al. With the discovery of artemisinin and its excellent anti-malarial activity, A. annua has received great attention. Recently, A. annua has been revealed to show inhibitory effects against parasites (e.g. Plasmodium, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania, Acanthamoeba, Schistosoma), viruses (e.g. hepatitis A virus, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, human immunodeficiency virus), fungi (Candida, Malassezia, Saccharomyces spp.) and bacteria (Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Listeria, Haemophilus, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia spp.). A. annua has also been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer actions and been employed for the treatment of osteoarthritis, leukemia, colon cancer, renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, prostate cancre and hepatoma. Besides, the immunoregulation, anti-adipogenic, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-asthmatic, anti-nociceptive and anti-osteoporotic activities of A. annua were also evaluated. Along these lines, this review summarizes the traditional application and modern pharmacological research of A. annua, providing novel insights of A. annua in the treatment of various diseases.

Keywords

Artemisia annua L.
Traditional application
Anti-parasitic
Anti-viral
Anti-fungal
Anti-bacterial
Anti-inflammatory
Anti-cancer

Abbreviations

AAE
A. annua extract
AALEO
essential oil from A. annua leaves
AAME
A. annua methanolic extract
ACT
artemisinin-based combination therapy
AS
artesunate
ASMCs
airway smooth muscle cells
CA16
cossac virus type A16
C/EBP
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein
CI
growth inhibitory concentration for 100% of the microorganisms
CL
cutaneous leishmaniasis
DLA
dried leaf A. annua
DLAe
dried leaf A. annua methylene chloride extracts
ECs
human umbilical vein endothelial cells
EMT
epithelial-mesenchymal transition
FabP4
fatty acid-binding protein 4
GIC50
growth inhibitory concentration for 50% of the microorganisms
GLUT1
glucose transporter 1
HAV
Hepatitis A virus
HBeAg
hepatitis B e-antigen
HBV
hepatitis B virus
HFD
high-fat diet
HFF
human foreskin fibroblasts
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus
HQG
polysaccharides isolated from A. annua
HSV
herpes simplex viruses
IZD
inhibition-zone diameter
JNK
Jun N-terminal kinase
Lac-FR
enriched sesquiterpene lactone fraction
LPS
lipopolysaccharide
MAPK
mitogen-activated protein kinase
MIC
minimal inhibitory concentration
ML
mucosal leishmaniasis
MMC
minimal microbicidal concentration
MMP
matrix metalloproteinase
mTORC1
mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1
NO
nitric oxide
NSCLC
non-small cell lung cancer
OVX
ovariectomized
PGE2
prostaglandin E2
PI3K
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase
pKAL
polyphenols from A. annua
PKM2
pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme M2
pPPARγ
eroximal proliferator-activated receptor-γ
PSA
prostate specific antigen
PTEN
phosphatase and tensin homolog
RANKL
receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand
RCC
renal cell carcinoma
RSV
respiratory syncytial virus
SLF
sesquiterpene lactone fraction
TC
total cholesterol
TG
triglyceride
TLR
toll-like receptor
TRs
tracheal rings
ULI
ulcerative lesion index
VCAM-1
vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
VL
visceral leishmaniasis
WHO
World Health Organization